The Experimental and Historical Foundations of Electricity, Volume 2

A. K. T. Assis, The Experimental and Historical Foundations of Electricity, Volume 2 (Apeiron, Montreal), 306 pages, ISBN 978-1-987980-10-3 (print) and ISBN 978-1-987980-11-0 (PDF).

The book is freely available in PDF format, in English and Portuguese, at:

This work deals with the most fundamental aspects of physics. The book describes the main experiments and discoveries in the history of electricity.

It deals with attractions and repulsions, positive and negative charges, conductors and insulators, electrification by friction/contact/induction, the triboelectric series, electrification of adhesive tapes, distribution of charges in conductors, electric equilibrium and the instrument which indicates potential difference, electric shielding, the power of points, sparks and electric discharges in air, electrets and the temporal preservation of the electrification of bodies, the mysterious non-electrostatic forces, etc.

This work explains how to build several instruments: versorium, electric pendulum, electroscope, charge collector, circuit tester, electrophorus, the Leyden jar and capacitors, etc. All experiments are clearly described and performed with simple, inexpensive materials.

These experiments lead to clear concepts, definitions and laws describing these phenomena. Historical aspects are presented, together with relevant quotations from the main scientists. A large bibliography is included at the end of the work.

The printed book, in English and Portuguese, can be ordered through Amazon:


Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) will host HSCI2023

The 20th annual international conference on Hands-on Science, HSCI2023, will be held in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, from July 17th to 21th, 2023.